University report: writing tips for students

In any university students present their research works in front of their teachers all the time. It is a part of higher education. So, what exactly is University report?  

University report is a type of independent scientific work where the author reveals the essence of the studied matter and provides various points of view including his own. Report isn’t a well-examined enough type of research work but it is common for universities and colleges. There are two kinds of report: a verbal report and a written one.

Three main author’s qualities are combined in a report such as being able to conduct research, knowing how to present it to listeners and answer the questions competently.

The distinctive feature of University report is its scientific academic style. Academic style is suitable for writing research works. This style defines the following norms:

  • Sentences can be long and complicated
  • Large amount of terms
  • Lack of author’s point of view
  • Stamps and general statements are frequently used

There are several stages in writing a report:

  • Studying of reference material
  • Systematization of material
  • Working out a plan
  • Writing
  • Public presentation

The general structure of a University report is:

  • Research theme (not only has it to be interesting but it also should be ingenious)
  • Relevance of the study (the importance of this research and why it is interesting)
  • Objectives of the study (corresponds the report’s research theme)
  • Hypothesis (possible results)
  • The study’s methodology (detailed description of applied methods)
  • The study’s results (short and precise summary of the conducted research)
  • Conclusion (findings better to be numbered)

The presentation of University report is:

  • Cover sheet
  • Table of contents
  • Introduction
  • Main body
  • Summary
  • Bibliographical list

If you want to be successful in presenting a paper, make sure you know all the terminology that had been used in your report. Or you can hire an essay writer and order quality college paper online at Be precise. Do no ramble on for too many pages. Let everyone know whether the goal of your research has been reached or not. If you failed, explain to everyone why it happened.  If you follow all the mentioned above rules, your report will be highly appreciated.

Professional Help in Writing a Research Paper in Accordance to all the Main Requirements

If you want to obtain best results, then you have to get help from a team of professionals.

Every scientific project requires a lot of time and persistence. There are many aspects involved in writing a coherent research paper and with some of them you might not be acquainted. If you truly want to prove your statement through an understandable research paper, then you will need to follow a set of basic rules.

How to put together a structure for a research paper?

Once you have decided to write a research paper, you will need to have a basic outline of what you want to see in your finished work. It all starts with the general thesis, which runs through your whole project.

The number of paragraphs depends exclusively on the number of pages and the amount of research material that you have at hand, but you need to keep in mind that there are certain parts that you can’t skip on. An introduction, body of paragraphs and conclusion are the basic ingredients that represent an absolute necessity when you are putting together a research paper.

How to get started with a research paper?

If you found yourself in the position where you have to write a research paper, then these steps will help you get through.

1. You will need to dedicate enough time to writing the paper. You will probably need around a month to gather enough information for your thesis and arrange it probably in a draft. A week may be enough and much depends on the chosen topic. Most importantly, you will have to set a plan for yourself and write down the tasks you have to accomplish on each day while you are working on your project. Create room in your schedule for trips to the local library and write an outline. You will have to write the first draft and then revise your paper. It would be better to plan your work during the day time, when the productivity is in its peak, unless you are a night person. This way you will be able to keep up with your schedule and won’t have to sacrifice the quality of your work in case you are failing to meet the deadline.

2. Identify the main idea of your research paper. In your work you will try to answer the main question of your thesis. In case your professor wants to find out about your thesis statement in advance, keep in mind these useful hints:

– Don’t overcomplicate matters; don’t choose the most difficult or vast subject for your work right away.

– Choose a specific thesis. You won’t have to deal with a large idea, which encompasses a lot of research material. It will be easier to focus on a narrow subject.

– Your subject has to meet all the requirements. Discuss it with your professor and see if your subject is suitable. See if there is enough material on the Internet, libraries and magazines for your topic.

3. After you have done preliminary research and have spoken to your professor, you can start planning out the structure and volume of you research paper. Try to answer the question, which you have set in the introductory part of your work. Each paragraph has to be linked to the main topic, while discussing different aspects of your thesis. In conclusion, you will have to give your own opinion on the subject based on the researched material. 

Scientific research

Scientific research is an informative process of turning original data with the help of scientific methods into knowledge. It is also a complex of theoretical and empirical procedures the aim of which is to gain new knowledge needed to reach a defined goal. The main feature of research study is its well-organized and task-oriented character and its reliance on scientific principles and methods. The higher scientific approach of the study results is, the higher they are evaluated.  Study results should provide the basis for further scientific developments. Scientific investigation is carried out by a researcher who possesses necessary skills and knowledge. It makes the study individual for scientist’s personality influences perceiving the examined issue, hypothesis formulation and methodology selection.

The structure of scientific research is:

  1. Scientific problem (this stage reveals the author’s understanding of the problem, it should be short and clear)
  2. Hypothesis
  3. Subject and object of study (Object is process which causes the studied issue, while subject is what lies in its boundaries)
  4. Methodology (tools which help reach the defined goal)
  5. Results and conclusion (the results of study are carefully examined and discussed, their theoretical and practical value is determined)

The stages of scientific research are as follows:

  • Defining an issue, subject and object of study, objectives
  • Working out hypothesis
  • Collection of information
  • Systematization and verification of original data
  • Presentation of study

There are the following types of scientific research:

  • Fundamental and applicative
  • Theoretical and practical
  • Local, regional, global and international
  • Static and dynamic
  • Mathematical, economic, geographic etc.

Any scientist working on scientific study should follow the principles of scientific ethics. The main ones are: being fully objective and honest in presenting the research results, avoid plagiarism and always remember that all scientists are equal in the face of truth. Some sanctions may be imposed in case of violating these basic rules.

In preparing scientific study there shouldn’t be any trifles. You should think through its structure, paragraphs and consistency.  Pay attention to style and language.

Essay: writing rules

The most important secret of the essay is the absence of any rigid rules. But it will be nice if you come up with a headline and try to preserve the typical structure of the text, providing for the introduction, the main part and the conclusion. It is not necessary to make an introduction and conclusion on some formal rules. The essay is not an abstract or even an article, and therefore does not need such typical phrases as:

“This article is about …”

“I want to tell the reader about …”

“The purpose of this work is …”

“I came to such conclusions as: …”

There is no need for service paragraphs, phrases, words that don’t carry any meaning. There is no need for a clear structure.

Unfortunately for some students and fortunately for future readers, the essay still shouldn’t be a disjointed set of words and phrases. The lack of clear rules for writing essays and complete freedom of action doesn’t at all give you carte blanche for  illegible, full of factual, logical and spelling mistakes text. Therefore it is better to stick to some framework.

A few recommendations to the beginning essayist:

Remember the topic and purpose of the essay. Your text should meet the title and the topic that you raise. Do not spread your head across the tree, unless your idea requires it. Excessively detailed descriptions, even artistic ones, can do you a disservice.

Specify the approximate amount of work for the teacher or employer and stick to it. Do not think that your zeal will be appreciated if you write a two-volume book on the topic “How I came to the profession of a doctor” or “What does higher education mean for me”. Of course, if you are a future Chuck Palahniuk or heir of Nietzsche and know how to entice the reader with ideas or narrative, you can take a chance and write 20-30 pages instead of two or three pages. Do you consider yourself a talented author? Come to the library, open any essay of a famous writer or philosopher, read. Did not fall asleep on the first page? Compare your style with the style of the author. Two-three pages are usually quite enough to fully reveal the topic.

Divide the text into paragraphs, dilute the subheadings, if necessary, use visual formatting tools. Your ability to keep the idea in a paragraph for a whole page does not interest anyone – such a paragraph simply will not be read. Make your text convenient for the reader.

Come around without a long entry. You write for the prepared reader (probably only the one who asked you a topic for the essay). You do not need to talk about the urgency of the problem, the importance of its solution for a modern person, you do not need to list the goals and objectives of the essay, as you did in the abstract or course. Start right away. The same applies to the conclusion. Do not waste the reader’s time.

Your text should have a structure. Introduction and conclusion should be by default, even if they are one or two lines long. It is important to structure the main part.

Use the graphical editor and spelling check. Make indents, select the headings, put that line spacing, which will make the text readable. Make sure that your essay is pleasant to read. Well, pay attention to spelling and punctuation. On the part of punctuation Word – not always a true helper, and some grammatical errors can be tolerated even with an auto-test. Therefore, before you take the essay, let him read to a literate person. You can help a classmate, a professional proofreader or an editor.

Formalization of the results of the scientific research

The final stage of the study, the literary design of the results, can’t be imagined only as an exposition of finished labor. The execution of the work is connected with the clarification of the logic, the grounds, the detection of ambiguities, etc. During the presentation, the idea is formulated and largely shaped. The author must accurately and easily communicate the main ideas, methods, conclusions and recommendations.

All the problems that arise at this stage can be conditionally divided into substantive (which should be told) and methodical (as it is better done).

The basic requirements for the content:

  1. The conceptual orientation is determined by the system of initial assumptions and leading ideas. These ideas may be different. They can be theresult of the integration of sometimes even opposing approaches, if the role and function of each of them are understood and the basis for their unification is found. They can be connected with the multi-concept nature of the methodological foundations of education, in which different approaches were combined in different historical epochs: naturcentric (in the center objective laws of the world, laws of the development of human-biological bases), socio-centric (in the basis of education development social needs) theocentric (the basis of development the highest idea, spirit, striving for perfection), anthropocentric (in the center a person, his needs and interests). But then it should be determined: which approaches and concepts will be parity, will complement each other (such, say, relations of social and individual factors in education and upbringing); where priorities should be identified (priority of the humanistic approach to the technological approach); how to place accents (the accents on creativity, independence and initiative are typical, although no one denies performance and the ability to work on the model).
  2. Essential analysis and generalization. We need in-depth consideration, analysis and generalization of facts in order not to confine ourselves to ascertaining, but to be able to find out the causes of the phenomena and processes under study, factors and prospects for development.
  3. Aspectual certainty involves considering the problem and presenting the work from a certain point of view. Although in one study there may be several aspects. Multidimensionality enhances the objectivity of the study, but in the presentation it is impossible to confuse aspects and jump from one to another. In each particular passage (context) there should be one aspect, although in the end they must be integrated.
  4. The combination of a broad social context of consideration with the individual-personal is given in pedagogy from the very beginning. This is determined by an understanding of the essence of education as the unity of the processes of socialization and individualization. Therefore, consideration of any objects and connections isolated from the social environment isn’t justifiable.

Classification of abstracts

Writing requirements for abstracts are so different that sometimes you ask yourself: Is this really one kind of work? Some abstracts are similar to the report, others – to a small coursework. And this isn’t accidental, because the family of abstracts is quite extensive.

The main classification of abstracts distinguishes the following types:

1) a report on a specific topic with a review of the sources;

2) an outline of the contents of a book, article, or other scientific work.

The first type includes the majority of educational essays are written in universities, schools, colleges. The second – abstracts, synopses, abstracts, abstracts of novelties in scientific journals and some other varieties.

The classification of abstracts according to the nature of the material supply is fairly well known, dividing them into two types: productive and reproductive.

Reproductive are aimed at a laconic reproduction of the content of the source with the identification of basic thoughts and positions. The abstract summarizes the main provisions of the topic, in the abstract – factual information, including the methods of research, results, etc.

Productive include critical analysis, creative comprehension of the collected material. In the review-review author should collect information on the topic from several sources and compare them, analyzing the views of different authors. In the abstract report, it is also necessary to give an objective assessment of the issue under consideration.

What else are abstracts?

There are several other classifications of abstracts.

According to the completeness of the presentation, there are informative and indicative ones. Informative is much larger in volume. They laconically, but fully reflects the information presented in the source, the author’s argument of the source. These are abstracts-abstracts. Indicative abstracts are more concise, they reflect only the main essence of the issue under consideration.

Another classification – by the number of primary sources. There are monographic essays built on the study of a single source, there are overviews – to write them you need to study the views of several authors.

Let us also consider the classification according to the purpose of the abstract. They are divided into general and specialized. General are addressed to a wide audience, specialized – to a highly specialized group of listeners or readers engaged in certain activities.

However, few students understand the types of abstracts. It’s not necessarily to use complex terms. It’s enough to imagine the difference in general, don’t forget to carefully study the requirements of the methodology and clarify with the teacher what you need to write.