Scientific research is an informative process of turning original data with the help of scientific methods into knowledge. It is also a complex of theoretical and empirical procedures the aim of which is to gain new knowledge needed to reach a defined goal. The main feature of research study is its well-organized and task-oriented character and its reliance on scientific principles and methods. The higher scientific approach of the study results is, the higher they are evaluated. Study results should provide the basis for further scientific developments. Scientific investigation is carried out by a researcher who possesses necessary skills and knowledge. It makes the study individual for scientist’s personality influences perceiving the examined issue, hypothesis formulation and methodology selection.
The structure of scientific research is:
- Scientific problem (this stage reveals the author’s understanding of the problem, it should be short and clear)
- Subject and object of study (Object is process which causes the studied issue, while subject is what lies in its boundaries)
- Methodology (tools which help reach the defined goal)
- Results and conclusion (the results of study are carefully examined and discussed, their theoretical and practical value is determined)
The stages of scientific research are as follows:
- Defining an issue, subject and object of study, objectives
- Working out hypothesis
- Collection of information
- Systematization and verification of original data
- Presentation of study
There are the following types of scientific research:
- Fundamental and applicative
- Theoretical and practical
- Local, regional, global and international
- Static and dynamic
- Mathematical, economic, geographic etc.
Any scientist working on scientific study should follow the principles of scientific ethics. The main ones are: being fully objective and honest in presenting the research results, avoid plagiarism and always remember that all scientists are equal in the face of truth. Some sanctions may be imposed in case of violating these basic rules.
In preparing scientific study there shouldn’t be any trifles. You should think through its structure, paragraphs and consistency. Pay attention to style and language.